Fighting racism in Dutch schools for kids with special needs: how different funding models affect the fight


  • Jawad Khan PhD Scholar of Department of Management Sciences University of Peshawar
  • Prof. Ahmed Hassan PhD Scholar of Department of Management Sciences University of Peshawar


Netherlands, Inclusive Education, Funding Models, Special Needs Education, Racism


Over the past few decades, there has been a notable rise in the percentage of students with special educational needs who are receiving their education at specialized schools that are separate from mainstream educational institutions in the Netherlands. In the year 1975, a mere 2.2% of students between the ages of 4 and 11 were registered in specialized educational institutions. However, during the course of the following two decades, this figure experienced a significant increase, nearly doubling to 4.3% from its initial value of 2.2%. Both the educational policies known as "Together to School Again" and the "Backpack" initiative were implemented in 1995 and 2003, respectively. These policies were developed with the aim of impeding more societal transformations. During the period of these limits, there was a variation in the allocation of financial resources for individuals with special needs. In contrast to Backpack, a platform that focused on meeting the specific needs of individual students, Together to School Again directed its efforts towards providing schools with a lump sum of money. Notwithstanding the implementation of these two legislative amendments, a considerable number of students with special needs continue to receive education in segregated classrooms. Financing the education of a child with special needs proved to be a formidable task, even when relying on two separate sources of income, despite the theoretical appeal of a lump sum payment. The case of the Netherlands exemplifies the formidable challenges associated with implementing substantial structural reforms within this particular economic sector.